GHETTOIZING THE JEWS – PART 2 . . . A Theological Treatise

GHETTOIZING THE JEWS – PART 2 . . . A Theological Treatise

More Issues Related to the Two Gospels of Dispensationalism

The veiled references to the rapture by Miles J. Stanford allude to the fact that after the Church’s Rapture the “gospel of the kingdom” espoused under the LAW as found in the four gospels will once again be extended to the world, through the Jews, who take up the mantle and proclaim a gospel which is, as well, based on the blood of Jesus but with different results—the Wife of Jehovah is produced, not the Bride of Christ.

This complete separation of National Israel from the “Elect, called out from among the nations” (the EKKLESIA) ultimately projects ANOTHER GOSPEL other than the Gospel of the Grace of God which the aforesaid Dispensationalists declare can only produce the EKKLESIA, aka, the Church, the One Body, the New Creation, the One New Man, so making peace.  How is that?

Well, again, Paul’s own writings inject a severe denunciation of preaching ANOTHER GOSPEL other than that which he delivered—so clarified to the Galatian brethren—however, after the pre-trib rapture of the Church, another Gospel is most definitely replacing the Gospel of the Grace of God; to wit:

I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed (Gal. 1:6-9).

How is it, therefore, in the minds of Dispensationalists, that a “retrograde gospel” is preached after the Church’s rapture and, no less, is preached by zealous Jews who apparently do NOT generate the same goals as the Gospel of the Grace of God revealed through Paul, but establishes a gospel that was once extended to National Israel and “rejected by the Jews” but will once again be extended after the Church’s rapture—thereby keeping the Jews/Israel GHETTOIZED – using the “heavenly position of the Church” juxtaposed to the “earthly role of National Israel”?

To these Dispensationalists there is no LINKAGE or nigh none whereby ALL ISRAEL shall be delivered, in that the Jews themselves constitute ALL ISRAEL and the Church is that mystery hidden in Messiah before the world began having absolutely nothing to do with Israel – just the opposite of what the Replacement theologians suggest–i.e., the Church completely subsumes ALL ISRAEL; whereas, the Jews of today constitute ALL ISRAEL in the theological schema of Dispensationalism.

Dr. John Walvoord – Keeping Israel Separated from the Church

Consequently, the Dispensationalists must keep Israel and the Church wholly apart—even through eternity?  That’s what John Walvoord suggests; somehow kept apart from the Church; even in the New Jerusalem:

In this city [i.e., the New Jerusalem] , as brought out, both Jew and Gentile will be inhabiting the city along with the saints of all other ages.  Significant is the fact, however, that a Jew is not automatically recognized as belonging to the church and the church is not automatically related to Israel.  The distinctions between the racial Jew and the church composed of both Jews and Gentiles is maintained in this revelation (P. 638 – “Every Prophecy of the Bible” by Dr. John Walvoord).

Thus, the Dispensational model maintains a strict separation both in issues of the “gospel” (with its peculiar “gospel of the kingdom” preached after the Church’s rapture by the Jews) and during the Millennial reign of the Son of David which Walvoord states is NOT the Glorified Groom, the Son of Man, for He is above the earth; therefore, Walvoord suggests the following:

Though Israel will enjoy the blessings of being regathered to her ancient land and under the special rule of Christ, the rest of the world will also experience the rule of Christ as King of kings.  The nation of Israel, however, will also have the benefits of the rule of David resurrected from the dead as a regent of Christ (Jer. 30:9; Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25).” (P. 628 – Every Prophecy of the Bible – John D. Walvoord)

Walvoord is forced to disclose that this David is NOT the Son of Man because during the Millennium on the earth the Glorified Son of Man is the Groom with His Bride, the Church, orbiting around the earth in that the New Jerusalem is the Bride of Messiah and does not interfere with the Holy District as disclosed by the vision of such in Ezekiel 40-48; to wit:

If the new Jerusalem is in existence throughout the millennial reign of Christ, it is possible that it is a satellite city suspended over the earth during the thousand-year reign of Christ as the dwelling place of resurrected and translated saints who also have access to the earthly scene. This would help explain an otherwise difficult problem of the dwelling place of resurrected and translated beings on the earth during a period in which men are still in their natural bodies and living ordinary lives. If so, the new Jerusalem is withdrawn from the earthly scene in connection with the destruction of the old earth, and later comes down to the new earth. The possibility of Jerusalem being a satellite city over the earth during the millennium is not specifically taught in any scripture and at best is an inference based on the implication that it has been in existence prior to its introduction in Revelation 21. (Revelation 21, John F. Walvoord, @ Retrieved on 10.01.2017) (Note:  This is precisely why the commencement of the “New Heaven and New Earth” as proposed in 2 Peter 3:10-13 must take place AFTER the Millennial Reign and not at the commencement of the Millennial Reign in the minds of most Dispensationalists.  The Dispensationalists see a GAP of 1,000 years in 2 Peter 3:10 and 2 Peter 3:12-13…where, quite frankly, no such GAP exists!)

But, ALAS!  Yet, shall the Son of David reign upon the Throne of David:

Jeremiah’s and Ezekiel’s prophecies should be understood this way: the Jews would one day return to their own country, their yoke of slavery would be removed, their fellowship with God would be restored, and God would provide them with a King of His own choosing. This King would, in some way, be like King David of old. These passages can refer to none other than the long-awaited Messiah, the “Servant of the Lord” (cf. Isaiah 42:1). The Jews sometimes referred to the Messiah as “David” because it was known the Messiah would come from David’s lineage. The New Testament often refers to Jesus as the “Son of David” (Matthew 15:22Mark 10:47).

There are other reasons, besides being the Son of David, that the Messiah is referred to as “David.” King David in the Old Testament was a man after God’s own heart (Acts 13:22), he was an unlikely king of God’s own choosing, and the Spirit of God was upon Him (1 Samuel 16:12–13). David, then, is a type of Christ (a type is a person who foreshadows someone else). Another example of this kind of typology is Elijah, whose ministry foreshadowed that of John the Baptist to the extent that Malachi called John “Elijah” (Malachi 4:5; cf. Luke 1:17Mark 9:11–13).” (Will David reign with Jesus in the Millennial Kingdom? @ on 10.01.2017.

In this same exposition Walvoord somehow is able to recognize that the very description of the New Jerusalem (but only in its eternal state—NOT during the Millennium) appears to provide distinction between Israel/Judah and/or all of the 12 Tribes included as ALL ISRAEL and the Church, still, on the one hand wholly distinct but in eternal union . . . Walvoord:

It is noteworthy, however, that not only are the twelve apostles represented but also the twelve tribes of Israel. This should settle beyond any question the matter of the inclusion of Old Testament saints. It apparently is the divine intent to represent to the reader that the new Jerusalem will have among its citizens not only the church, or saints of the present age, but also Israel, or saints of other ages, whether in the Old Testament or in the tribulation period. Later on there is mention also of Gentiles. The careful expositor, therefore, on the one hand will not confuse Israel and the church as if one were the other. On the other hand, he will not deny to both their respective places of privilege in God’s program. The anticipation of Hebrews 12:22-24 is specifically that the heavenly Jerusalem will include not only God and an innumerable company of angels but also the general assembly and church of the firstborn, that is, the saints of the present age and the spirits of just men made perfect, that is, all other saints. As far as this scripture is concerned, there is only one eternal resting place for the saints, and that is the new Jerusalem. All saints, therefore, must necessarily participate in the city, just as many of them did also in the millennial scene without destroying the distinction between different companies of saints. (Ibid.)

Thus, there are TWO HOLY CITIES during the Millennial Reign of the Son of David – the suspended ionospheric New Jerusalem (i.e., the Bride of Messiah with her Groom) – and the Holy District seen by Ezekiel (Ezk. 40-48) upon the earth for the Jews/Israel.  No mention is made of John 1:41-51 whereupon Nathaniel’s declaration that Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of God invoked the revelation of Jacob’s Ladder to be the Son of Man bridging the dimensional divide between Heaven and Earth:  “You shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man” (John 1:51) – herein lies a most profound truth wherein as Son of God, Messiah, brought God to man, and as Son of Man He brings man into God!  Simultaneously, the vision of the “heavenly/earthly ladder” (aka, Jacob’s Ladder) is an astonishing picture of bringing Jewish Israel (the so-called “earthly people”) together with the EKKLESIA (the so-called “heavenly people”)–if we were to use the Dispensationalist’s nomenclature.

More Issues Related to Two Brides

The Dispensationalist conceives of Two Holy Cities and Two Brides, as well, so that the Jews/Israel is wedded to the Wife of Jehovah and the Bride of Christ (the New Testament saints—aka, the Church) is wedded to her Messiah; again, Arnold Fruchtenbaum:

There are certain key distinctions in the Scriptures. If one does not understand these biblical distinctions, the Scriptures become contradictory because one part of the Bible says “you may” and another says “you may not” concerning the very same subject. One of these key biblical distinctions is the one between Israel and the Church. In the Bible, Israel is represented as the “Wife of Jehovah,” whereas the Church is represented as the “Bride of the Christ (Messiah).” A failure to maintain that distinction will only result in a misinterpretation of what the Scriptures teach.

Fruchtenbaum continues:

While the distinction between Israel and the Church is maintained in various ways throughout the Bible, this is one of the more picturesque. However, if one makes the Wife of Jehovah (Israel) and the Bride of the Messiah (the Church) one and the same thing, he is faced with numerous contradictions because of the different descriptions given. Only when the two separate entities are seen: Israel as the Wife of Jehovah and the Church as the Bride of the Messiah, do all such contradictions vanish. (JUL 8, 2009 – The Wife of Jehovah and the Bride of Messiah – By Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum @ Bible Prophecy Blog, Retrieved on 10.01.2017

By structuring in the name of “rightly dividing the Word of Truth” the Dispensationalists have orchestrated a virtual theological ghetto for the Jews of National Israel wherein there are TWO GOSPELS, TWO BRIDES, TWO NEW COVENANTS, TWO HOLY CITIES, TWO SEPARATED ADMINISTRATIVE SPHERES DURING THE MILLENNIUM, TWO RESURRECTIONS (and more); and, alas, the postponement of the New Heavens and the New Earth until the Eschaton in order to keep Israel and the Church separated during the entire Millennial Reign.

The charge by Miles J. Stanford regarding the incompatibility of these two gospels with their subsequent Two New Covenants—the one for National Israel and the other for the EKKLESIA–utterly complicates itself after the Church’s pre-tribulational rapture designed to keep, once again, the Jews ghettoized from ALL ISRAEL.  Israel cannot be defined by any other definition than the Jews of the world—now awaiting prophetic fulfillment and divine deliverance so that ALL ISRAEL will be delivered (Rom. 11:24-27)—this means all the Jewish remnant upon the Second Coming of the DELIVERER.

The “Mystery of the Church” revealed through Paul, abides aloft from Earth’s commonality, from the Jews – even the SALVATION wrought by the Lamb of God is separated from the “gospel of the Kingdom” preached AFTER the church’s pre-trib rapture – it is no longer “so great a salvation” but, though based upon the blood (however impossible that can be construed), it still is NOT the same salvation that alone can produce the Bride of Messiah – at best, after the Rapture what is produced via the “gospel of the kingdom” are Temple Servants who come out of the Great Tribulation, and who shall serve in the Temple during the 1,000-year Millennial Reign of the Son of David.

The great Dispensationalist expositor, Donald Grey Barnhouse, commentates upon Revelation 7 and the “Great Multitude” who arrive in glory AFTER the pre-tribulational rapture of the Church takes place—not even these martyrs are worthy to be members of the Bride of Messiah but will assist with National Israel as “Temple Servants” during the earthly Millennial reign – to wit:

As their calling and service differ from ours, so does their destiny.  We, as the bride with the Bridegroom, sit upon the throne to rule and reign with the Lord of Glory.  Our destiny is said to be that of rulers and judges.  We are to be kings and priests (1 Cor. 6:2, 3; 1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6).  The 144,000 are to be the glorious bodyguard (Jews from the 12 Tribes of Israel), the retinue of the Lamb, following Him whithersoever He goeth (Rev. 14:4).  The destiny of the Gentile multitude, however, is that of TEMPLE SERVANTS.  Any reader of the book of Ezekiel knows, of course, that the Temple will be the central earthly feature of the millennial reign.  Here we are told that the great multitude which has come out of the tribulation period is to carry on the priestly work of that Temple” (P.153, Revelation 7:9-17, Revelation, an Expositional Commentary, Donald Grey Barnhouse, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI). (My emphasis.)

The extremity of ghettoizing the Jews—keeping the House of Judah from the House of Ephraim (if you would) – and/or keeping the “natural branches” (i.e., the Jews) from being grafted into the same Olive Tree (actually, “their own olive tree”) now occupied by the wild branches into the singular ROOT THAT BORE BOTH OF THEM . . . (Romans 11:17-24) . . . has reached unbelievable efforts by some pretribulationists who now contemplate that the “wild olive branches” (“the elect from among the nations”) may have to be broken off via the Church’s rapture in order to “make room” for the grafting in again of National Israel—don’t laugh . . . this is a metaphorical disaster!

Two Resurrections

It may come as a theological shock to some believers that the “Resurrection of the Just” does NOT include O.T. saints; nor does it include the less-than-so-great-a-salvation tribulation saints; only the members of the Bride of Messiah, the EKKLESIA, the Church, make it at the initial Resurrection/Rapture–the O.T. saints are not, at this time resurrected–even though it may appear there is but one resurrection of the just as found in Revelation 20:4-6:

And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection.  Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years (Rev. 20:4-6).

Arnold Fruchtenbaum links the Marriage Super of the Lamb with the omission of the O.T. saints at the initial resurrection of the Bride of Messiah:

At the time of the marriage of the Lamb (Rev. Rev. 19:7+), there is only one group of saints who have already been resurrected to receive their glorified bodies: the Church at the Rapture prior to the Tribulation. It would seem premature for other saints which have not yet been resurrected to be included in the marriage with the Lamb [NOTE:  Strictly an opinion by Fruchtenbaum.]. Nor will they return with Him as part of the army of heaven (Rev. 19:14+).

The difficulty of including Israel along with the church as part of the bride is a chronological one. OT saints and dead saints from the period of Daniel’s seventieth week [aka “the tribulation saints”] will rise in time for the Millennium (Dan. 12:1-2), but not in time to join Christ in His triumphal return (Rev. 19:14+).  It is also impossible for saints who die during the Millennium to be part of this company, because their resurrection will not come in time (Rev. 20:5-6+). Yet it is incontrovertible that Israel will appear with the church in the New Jerusalem which is also Christ’s bride. The city’s twelve pillars and twelve foundations (Rev. Rev. 21:12+Rev. 21:14+) prove the presence of both distinctive groups.7

Although they will be resurrected to participate in the wedding feast at the Millennial Kingdom (Isa. 26:19; Dan. 12:2; Rev. 20:4+), at the time of the marriage itself they are only soul and spirit. Because they were never joined to the body of Christ by the baptizing work of the Holy Spirit which began on the Day of Pentecost, they are not part of the marriage mystery concerning Christ and the church (Eph. 5:30-32). See commentary on Revelation 17:14. (Fruchtenbaum, The Church Betrothed to Christ)

Unbelievable, Fruchtenbaum takes “theological license” to unilaterally declare the O.T. saints are not resurrected until the commencement of the Millennial Rule & Reign of the Son of David and then omits any exposition of the “tribulational saints” by obfuscating them from Revelation 20:5-6 – how does that go down?  Why?  Because the O.T. saints are not IN CHRIST–“the dead in Christ shall rise first” (1 Thess. 4:16).  Only the Bride of Messiah is IN CHRIST; whereas, the O.T. saints are ensconced in the Bosom of Abraham?

Well, by obfuscating the O.T. saints from the Resurrection/Rapture (1 Thess. 4:15-18), he is able to exclude them from the Marriage Super of the Lamb, ipso facto from the very Bride of Messiah (Rev. 19:6-9).  Why?  Forbid that Jews in the “Age of the Law” looking forward to the “sufferings of Christ” would be found released from their theological ghetto to attend such a feast; although, they certainly looked forward to the day!

Of this salvation the prophets have inquired and searched carefully, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you, searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in them was indicating when He testified beforehand the SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST and the glories [perhaps the Marriage Super of the Lamb] that would follow.  To them it was revealed that, not to themselves, but to us they were ministering the things which now have been reported to you through those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven–things which angels desire to look into (1 Peter 1:10-12).

A disquieting realization (or at least it should be) is for Dispensationalists to connect Revelation 20:4 with Revelation 20:5-6.  Here we read a most incredible qualification in participating in the FIRST RESURRECTION (as in “first love” – Rev. 2:4 – which in Greek connotes “best in kind, foremost, superior”) – which would appear to be the Resurrection to which we all should aspire:

And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. An.d they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years (Rev. 20:4)

Ask any Dispensationalist if the Church shall RULE & REIGN with Christ a thousand years (although aloft in their “heavenly sphere”)–and they will reply with a hearty AMEN!  But when they are informed that they might have to suffer a headectomy, most would-be volunteers fade into obscurity.  Yet, the description of these martyrs who did not “worship the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads, or on their hands” are truly those same “tribulation saints” who are designated, at best, as “temple servants” – but, really, does a “temple servant” “rule and reign with Christ a thousand years“?

However, that said, Tommy Ice enlightens us to the “guest list” to be held after the Marriage Supper of the Lamb–i.e., the Reception–quoting Arnold Fruchtenbaum:

However, after the second coming when believers from other ages will be resurrected (Dan. 12:2) along with tribulation saints, both mortal and resurrected ones (Rev. 20:4), these will be the invited guest who will be guests at this celebration supper [aka, the Wedding Reception]. I believe that the marriage supper will be during the first part of the millennial reign of Christ. Fruchtenbaum says:

Hence, the “many” who are bidden to attend the marriage feast on earth are all the Old Testament saints and the Tribulation saints resurrected after the Second Coming. While the marriage ceremony will take place in Heaven just before the Second Coming, the marriage feast will take place on earth after the Second Coming. In fact, it would seem that the marriage feast is what begins the Millennium or the Messianic Kingdom; the Church’s co-reigning with the Messiah will start with a tremendous marriage feast. (Source:  Footsteps of the Messiah, Fruchtenbaum, p. 597. as found in Dr. Tommy Ice’s “Marriage Super of the Lamb” – Pre-Trib Research Center)

Not to sound irreverent, however, later on we learn that the Dispensationalists suggest that just as the O.T./Tribulational Saints (not fit to be members of the Bride of Messiah, and, consequently, the Marriage of the Lamb–even though the Spirit of Christ was somehow “in them” [i.e., the prophets in the O.T.]–they will be the invited guests at the Marriage Reception of the Bride of Messiah at the commencement, apparently, of the Millennial Reign . . . these same O.T./Tribulational Saints (or at least the O.T.–for the Tribulation Saints are in, I guess, a state of limbo) will marry the Father, Jehovah, and become the Wife of Jehovah–when (wherever/whenever) that marriage takes place; then the members of the Bride of Christ will be the invited guests to that Wedding Feast!

Notwithstanding, these rather elaborate Dispensational “clarifications” designed to eliminate “confusion” among God’s people as to His eternal plan and purpose of the ages; other Dispensationalists are NOT in agreement with Dr. Fruchtenbaum and propose a more radical set of “marriage” circumstances; to wit:

It is our firm conviction that the Body of Christ is not the Bride, the Lamb’s wife. We believe to teach otherwise is to bring a kingdom truth into the Body of Christ where it is not only unnatural, but a forced interpretation. May God in His grace give us a Berean spirit to study to see if these things are so. AMEN! (Source:  Berean Bible Study, The Bride of Christ, by Pastor Paul M. Sadler)

Frankly, the elaborate two-tiered system constructed by Dispensationalism and their isolation (I’ve used the term “ghettoizing”) of the Jew, National Israel and their erstwhile “temple servants” (the saints of the 70th Week of Daniel–aka, the “tribulation saints”) are, increasingly discovering a plethora of convoluted explanations regarding the superiority of the Pauline Gospel and its exclusivity to all other writers of the New Testament, let alone its issues related to the writers of the O.T. – as Miles J. Stanford has suggested:

One need not go to Israel for anything!

A Word on Replacement Theologies

Finally, at opposite ends of the prophetic spectrum are the replacement theologians and their teachings which shortly manifested themselves nigh immediately after the initial work of the cross within the EKKLESIA . . .

God never wanted an earthly king in the Old Testament, and He never intended Jesus to be an earthly king. Premillennialists have been wrong about this in exactly the same ways Jews have been wrong.  Premillennialism is rank racism and [so is] Judaism. It rejects God’s plan for the nation of Israel and rejects God’s plan for the King of Israel. Its golden dream is to institute that which God has always opposed. (Source:  David E. Pratte @ retrieved on 10.01.2017

A Final Word

The determination of Commonwealth Theology is to highlight the indiscretions of Dispensationalism and Replacement Theologies which have either ghettoized the Jews in any future prophetic role or have subsumed the Jews of Judah and/or all twelve tribes of both houses (Judah and Ephraim), eliminating any future and/or immediate prophetic role for ALL ISRAEL – indeed, Replacement Theology completely relegates the Jew, not to a ghetto, but to total theological oblivion!

Neither the confinement (i.e., the theological ghetto) of the Jews by the Dispensationalists, nor their subsumption by Replacement theologies provides an adequate theological discourse in the grand scheme of Biblical themes by providing a cohesive understanding of the singular New Covenant inaugurated through the Blood of the Everlasting Covenant via the sacrifice of the Lamb of God at Calvary.

Keeping Israel and the Church distinct is only permissible when the Two Sticks, the Two Houses – Judah and Ephraim – are understood in their contiguous march through “chosen history.”  Again, their kingdom disillusionment (after the death of King Solomon) can only be restored and reconciled through the Blood of the Cross—so making peace.  By incoherent fracturing wrought via Dispensationalism’s efforts to deflate what are viewed as virtual “competitive claims” by all other biblical authors aside from the Apostle Paul is fraught through and through with Marcion-style heresy.***  We affirm that we have found a much better expression of divine truth without diminishing Israel (Replacement Theology) or ghettoizing the Jew – even so:  COMMONWEALTH THEOLOGY.

*** Marcionism was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144.[1]

Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God, and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of Israel. Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament. This belief was in some ways similar to Gnostic Christian theology; notably, both are dualistic, that is, they posit opposing gods, forces, or principles: one higher, spiritual, and “good”, and the other lower, material, and “evil” (compare Manichaeism). This dualism stands in contrast to other Christian and Jewish views that “evil” has no independent existence, but is a privation or lack of “good”,[2] a view shared by the Jewish theologian Moses Maimonides.[3]

Marcionism, similar to Gnosticism, depicted the God of the Old Testament as a tyrant or demiurge (see also God as the Devil). Marcion was labeled a gnostic by Philip Schaff,[4]while other scholars[who?] have rejected that categorization. Marcion’s canon consisted of eleven books: A gospel consisting of ten sections drawn from the Gospel of Luke; and ten Pauline epistles.

Marcion’s canon rejected the entire Old Testament, along with all other epistles and gospels of the 27 book New Testament canon because they transmitted “Jewish” ideas.[5] Paul’s epistles enjoy a prominent position in the Marcionite canon, since Paul is credited with correctly transmitting the gracious universality of Jesus’ message in opposition to the harsh dictates of the “just god”. (Winkipedia – Retrieved on 10.01.2017)

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